Thermoelectric power generation

In the United States, 90 percent of electricity comes from thermoelectric power plants—coal, nuclear, natural gas, and oil—that require cooling. The PowerPot has no moving parts or batteries, and since the thermoelectric technology is built into the bottom of the pot it can produce electricity from a wide variety of heat sources. “Converting waste heat into electric power, for example, using vehicle exhaust, is a near-term ‘green’ application for such materials.”

The PowerPot runs a light by converting heat to DC electricity
The PowerPot runs a light by converting heat to DC electricity

Generators have been constructed to use solar, natural gas, propane, butane, kerosene, jet fuels, and wood, to name  a few heat sources. The device generates electricity via the Seebeck Effect, where electricity is produced from a temperature differential applied across the device. Working within these limits, however, it is possible to fabricate custom modules that are particularly suited for standard use.

Of course, everything has its limitations, but with a unit the size of the one in the following video, you’ll easily be able to power small gadgets you have around your home. Be aware that there are practical limits on element geometry due to the fragility of crystalline Bismuth telluride material. Also be aware that the Bismuth melts at 520.7 °F so too much heat will melt the units. 

Thermoelectric waste heat recovery is the process of recapturing this lost heat and converting it to electrical power. By using the modules “in reverse,” however, whereby a temperature differential is applied across the faces of the module, it is possible to generate electrical power. A bigger unit would serve higher purposes.

Basic-schematic-for-a-thermoelectric-generator.-Graphic-from-CalTech.
If you give this unit electricity it causes cold to move to one side and heat to the other. We run this in the opposite direction to create electricity. heating the cool side and cooling the hot side.

 

Turn Anything Into Oil

The process that the earth uses to create oil has been discovered, its is called Thermal Depolymerization(TDP). Basically heat organic or inorganic materials up with steam and they start to separate into oil and the other elements they are made of. The TDP process has been able to decrease the time it takes to make oil from millions of years to about 15 minutes. For example the company Tyson that makes us all the chicken nuggets and delicious lunch meats and Thanksgiving turkeys have a huge amount of waste from there process. In 2001 they started to send those wastes to a TDP plant and turned 600 million tons of turkey guts and other waste into 4 billion barrels of light Texas oil.

Unlike other solid-to-liquid-fuel processes such as cornstarch into ethanol, this one will accept almost any carbon-based feedstock. If a 175-pound man fell into one end, he would come out the other end as 38 pounds of oil, 7 pounds of gas, and 7 pounds of minerals, as well as 123 pounds of sterilized water. While no one plans to put people into a thermal depolymerization machine they are planning to put the human sewage and trash in an have oil come out.

So how does it work? The other processes all tried to drive out water. We drive it in, inside this tank, with heat and pressure. We super-hydrate the material.” Thus temperatures and pressures need only be modest, because water helps to convey heat into the feedstock. “We’re talking about temperatures of 500 degrees Fahrenheit and pressures of about 600 pounds for most organic material—not at all extreme or energy intensive. And the cooking times are pretty short, usually about 15 minutes.”

Once the organic soup is heated and partially depolymerized in the reactor vessel, phase two begins. “We quickly drop the slurry to a lower pressure,” says Appel, pointing at a branching series of pipes. The rapid depressurization releases about 90 percent of the slurry’s free water. Dehydration via depressurization is far cheaper in terms of energy consumed than is heating and boiling off the water, particularly because no heat is wasted. “We send the flashed-off water back up there,” Appel says, pointing to a pipe that leads to the beginning of the process, “to heat the incoming stream.”

At this stage, the minerals—in turkey waste, they come mostly from bones—settle out and are shunted to storage tanks. Rich in calcium and magnesium, the dried brown powder “is a perfect balanced fertilizer,” Appel says.

The remaining concentrated organic soup gushes into a second-stage reactor similar to the coke ovens used to refine oil into gasoline. “This technology is as old as the hills,” says Appel, grinning broadly. The reactor heats the soup to about 900 degrees Fahrenheit to further break apart long molecular chains. Next, in vertical distillation columns, hot vapor flows up, condenses, and flows out from different levels: gases from the top of the column, light oils from the upper middle, heavier oils from the middle, water from the lower middle, and powdered carbon—used to manufacture tires, filters, and printer toners—from the bottom. “Gas is expensive to transport, so we use it on-site in the plant to heat the process,” Appel says. The oil, minerals, and carbon are sold to the highest bidders.

Depending on the feedstock and the cooking and coking times, the process can be tweaked to make other specialty chemicals that may be even more profitable than oil. Turkey offal, for example, can be used to produce fatty acids for soap, tires, paints, and lubricants. Polyvinyl chloride, or PVC—the stuff of house siding, wallpapers, and plastic pipes—yields hydrochloric acid, a relatively benign and industrially valuable chemical used to make cleaners and solvents. “That’s what’s so great about making water a friend,” says Appel. “The hydrogen in water combines with the chlorine in PVC to make it safe. If you burn PVC [in a municipal-waste incinerator], you get dioxin—very toxic.”

Anything-Into-Oil1may03b
A. industrial grinder/blender B. heated water and steam C. Vacuum removal of water and solid separation D. water and oils separation E. gases separation and reused to fuel unit F. Oil of all grades out ie. light medium and heavy

“The potential is unbelievable,” says Michael Roberts, a senior chemical engineer for the Gas Technology Institute, an energy research group. “You’re not only cleaning up waste; you’re talkingabout distributed generation of oil all over the world.”

Solid State Tesla Coil Circuit Board

Do you want to build a simple Tesla coil and experiment with wireless energy transmission? This Tesla coil is solid state and only requires about 25 dollars to make if you visit radio shack. Safety warning: One thing to keep in mind is that it is not recommended to run your Tesla coil without a top load, although it will function (with a bit less output). The spark generated by the L2 may be fun to observe and tinker with, however it is dangerous by nature (in seen and unseen ways) and produces ozone.

Screenshot from 2014-07-26 13:24:02

Screenshot from 2014-07-26 12:52:13

Primary
L1 ( the primary inductor coil) may consist of a pancake, 5-8 turns of any magnet wire approx. 22AWG. The inner diameter of the first most inner winding should not touch the L2 (1/8 inch gap all the way around is acceptable), and there should be a small gap between the subsequent windings of the L1. A small piece of cardboard can serve as the base of the pancake; use small slivers of electrical tape to maintain separation of the windings as you progress around the doughnut, from the center, outward.

L1-1024x773

Secondary
L2 may consist of 500-2000+ turns of any magnet wire tightly wrapped on PVC , between half an inch and 3 inches in diameter. The longer the final the length of the wire, the more internal resistance it will have. TeslaTronix Tesla Coils use Inch and a quarter PVC. Within reason, the wider the ratio of windings between the primary and secondary, the grater the final output voltage of the tower. There is no connection from L2 to ground; only to the resistor, base, diode node. It is recommended to immediately spray with lacquer your L2 or wrap it in electrical tape double helix as changes in temperature will change the length of your coil, and cause imperfections.

IMG_2767-1024x682

Toroid/Top load
In any Tesla coil the toroid (or top capacitance load) is a key component. Using a Sphere is the best because of it’s shape. also bear in mind that sharp points leak the energy so no sharp points on the top. that is a different story if you want to receive the energy then you can use sharp points on the receiver.

There are several ways to approach toroids from a hobbyist perspective. Depending on available materials in your area, and budget, there are several avenues you can choose when seeking a toroid. There are generally two types of top loads- spherical, and actual toroidal shaped loads. Spherical loads are generally best for wireless power distribution, while the actual toroidal shaped loads are best for visible breakout arching.

If you want to buy the kit for building this there here http://www.teslatronix.com/single-kits/

This is a list of parts in the kit with spare parts also just in case you need them.

mini breadboard (solderless) and 2x project board (solderable)
male/female universal power adapters w/terminals
3A fuse
inline fuse holder
625-650 feet 32 AWG magnet wire
Approximately 10.5 inches of PVC for L2 (coil is not pre wound)
3-4 feet 22 AWG magnet wire + wooden mini spool
3X TIP31C
1 male, + 2X female universal TO 220 transistor socket kit
3X tinned transistor socket kit leads
Transistor heat sink with M3 hardware
2X 100KΩ Potentiometer
4x 1N4007 Diode
electrical tape
2X 9V battery leads
Several LEDs
3X bi-polar solderable terminals
Instructional DVD
Envelope with warnings, instructions, and drawings
Sticker pack

Global Energy Transmission

Support needed at :
https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/let-s-build-a-planetary-energy-transmitter
Two young physicists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology five years of their life were devoted to the study of the work of Nikola Tesla – the wireless transfer of energy – Wardenclyffe Tower (known as the Tesla Tower). After years of research they have concluded that TESLA WAS RIGHT!

get1

They have re-designed a version of Tesla’s Wardenclyffe Tower, based on his principles yet using modern materials and advanced electronic components, and THEY ARE READY TO BUILD IT!


They have a detailed plan for physical experiments with this FIRST TOWER OF THE WORLDWIDE ENERGY SYSTEM that will SURELY be built in the future and now they need SUPPORT and contributions to begin this research program!

This is for the benefit OF ALL MANKIND and future generations!
Let them realize the dream of Tesla’s wireless transmission of energy!

So little is needed to make this happen… A world without wires, healthier environment, using the energy of the desert – THE SUN … The Planetary Energy Transmitter will ensure the availability of energy anywhere in the world even in the heavy accessible places!
Global Energy Transmission
https://www.facebook.com/globalenergytransmission
http://globalenergytransmission.com/

How to make DIY high voltage capacitors

How to make DIY high voltage capacitors. I start by showing a few different high voltage capacitors I’ve made over the years followed by an explanation of how denser electric field causes breakdown of the capacitor dielectric/insulator. I then show what the voltage rating on commercial capacitors means. I next show how to find breakdown voltage, also known at dielectric strength, online and use it in calculations for how thick your dielectric should be. That’s followed by a breakdown voltage test with a homemade high voltage power supply, an analog volt meter and an ammeter. I then show how the shape of capacitor plates influences breakdown voltage, as well as the effect thin plates has on ionizing air. That leads to using corona dope, resin or wax to insulate the capacitor plates. In the final breakdown voltage demonstrations I show the use of current limiting resistors and lastly how standard breakdown voltage tests are done.

hvcap

hvcap2

 

Electrophorus

A first version of it was invented in 1762 by Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke. It is a simple manual capacitive generator used to produce electrostatic charge via the process of electrostatic induction.

Electrophorus_deviceElectrophorus_cutaway

The electrophorus consists of a dielectric plate (originally a ‘cake’ of resinous material such as pitch or wax, but in modern versions plastic is used) and a metal plate with an insulating handle.The dielectric does not transfer a significant fraction of its surface charge to the metal because the microscopic contact is poor. Instead the electrostatic field of the charged dielectric causes the charges in the metal plate to separate. It develops two regions of charge — the positive charges in the plate are attracted to the side facing down toward the dielectric, charging it positively, while the negative charges are repelled to the side facing up, charging it negatively, with the plate remaining electrically neutral as a whole. Then, the side facing up is momentarily grounded (which can be done by touching it with a finger), draining off the negative charge. Finally, the metal plate, now carrying only one sign of charge, is lifted.

Electrophorus